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Polymicrobial lung infection in postrenal transplant recipient diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Tuberculous and fungal infections are among the non-neoplastic lesions of the lung, in which fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has proven to be a useful technique in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The presence of polymicrobial infection in a renal transplant recipient is documented in the literature, but has rarely been diagnosed on cytology. We report a case of concomitant pulmonary cryptococcosis, aspergillosis, and tuberculosis in a renal transplant recipient diagnosed on FNAC.A 50-year-old renal transplant recipient, asymptomatic for 3 year, presented with intermittent low-grade fever associated with cough, expectoration, and a newly developed cavitatory lesion in the left lung on chest X-ray. Computed tomography-guided FNAC performed on the lung lesion showed fungal profiles with septate hyphae and acute-angled branching consistent with morphology of Aspergillus. In addition, numerous yeast forms of cryptococcus and a few acid-fast mycobacterial tubercle bacilli were seen.Guided FNAC is a useful and reliable technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary infection. One should always keep in mind the possibility of polymicrobial infections especially inimmunocompromised patients.

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