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Clinical and laboratory study of tobramycin in the treatment of infections due to gram-negative organisms. Tobramycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, was used to treat 52 infections due to gram-negative organisms in 51 patients. Complicated urinary tract infections, bacteremia and pyelonephritis accounted for 80% of the infections. The rate of immediate satisfactory response was 79%. During therapy with tobramycin, resistant organisms emerged in four patients--two Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two Escherichia coli strains. There were four superinfections with tobramycin-resistant Providencia sp. In four seriously ill patients the serum creatinine concentration increased 1 mg/dL or more; in three the increase was transient. No auditory toxicity was noted in the 19 patients in whom serial audiograms were made. In vitro testing of isolates from these patients showed that tobramycin and gentamicin had equal activity against Enterobacteriaceae. Tobramycin was two to four times more active against susceptible P. aeruginosa.

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