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Cross-reference terms in italics are general cross-references, or refer to subentry terms within the main entry (the main entry is not repeated to save space). Readers are also advised to refer to each article for additional cross-references e not all of these crossreferences have been included in the index cross-references.
The index is arranged in set-out style with a maximum of three levels of subheading. Major discussion of a subject is indicated by bold page numbers. Page numbers suffixed by t, f, and b refer to Tables, Figures, and Boxes respectively. vs. indicates a comparison.
The index entries are presented in word-by-word alphabetical sequence in which a group of letters followed by a space is filed before the same group of letters followed by a letter. For example, entries beginning 'air density' are alphabetized before 'aircraft.' Prefixes and terms in parentheses are excluded from the initial alphabetization.
acorn and Lyme disease 4:154 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) 1:244, 4:89, 6:127 acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) 6:493 acrolein 1:82 adverse health effects 1:83e84 air concentrations and sources of exposure 1:82e83 ambient concentrations and emissions 1:82e83 indoor air sources and concentrations 1:83 limitations of toxicological and human studies 1:84 risks to public 1:85 acrylates 1:215 actinic prurigo 6:214 active listening 5:426e427 active sampling 1:193e194 active soil depressurization (ASD) 3:643, 3:646f, 3:648e649 active soil pressurization 3:649 activity interference 4:670 activity patterns 1:603e604, 2:846 activity-based intake rates 2:846e848 acute cardiovascular effects of vehicular exhausts 6:340 acute diarrhea 2:659 acute encephalopathy 3:709 acute genotoxicity assays 5:563 acute hematological syndrome 3:599 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 3:168 acute mountain sickness (AMS) 3:445 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) 3:168 acute noise, experimental studies of 4:657 reading, memory, and learning 4:657 acute radiation sickness 2:370 acute radiation syndrome (ARS) 1:672e673, 3:99e100 acute renal failure (ARF) 1:423 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) 3:402 acute respiratory effects of vehicular exhausts 6:339e340 acute schistosomiasis 5:607 acute thallium poisoning 4:340 acute tungsten poisoning 4:337 acute watery diarrhea 2:659 adaptation process 5:283e284 measures to managing health risks of climate change 5:284e288, 5:288t adaptive immune system 2:439, 4:266 adduct formation 3:219 adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) 3:184 in cigarette smoke-induced base excision repair and carcinogenesis 3:188e189 role in BER 3:189 structure and function 3:188e189 adenovirus 2:664 adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (ACTH) 5:820 adsorption based community filters 1:647e648 adult(s) disease 1:590e591 immunological effects in 3:606 pesticides effect on 5:129 adventure travel 3:297 Adventurers of Freedom 1:236 adverse birth outcomes 1:726 Aedes A. aegypti 3:293, 3:293f, 3:295t, 6:480, 6:480f A. albopictus 3:292e293, 3:293f, 3:295t environmental impacts in Ancient Times 2:601e602 environmentally attributable diseases with 2:602e604 increasing land size 4:11 nanotechnology in 2:680 production 2:555e556 sector 6:180 waste burning 1:388 water use for 6:439 agro-industrial waste conversion agro-industrial residues bioconversion 1:13e14 cultivated mushrooms 1:16e19 global mushroom production 1:14 phases of mushroom in Ancient cities 2:607e608 cellular mechanisms in air pollutants actions 2:280 on children's PF 1:22 combined exposure to noise and 1:706e709 control measurement practical guidance 5:714e717 social CBA 5:711e714 specific health damage cost assessment framework 5:717e720 effects on pollen 6:447 elevated risk groups 1:27 and environmental health 4:648e649 ambient air pollution 3:172 ETS 3:172e173 radon exposure 3:173 episodes 1:41e43 nature of 1:43 policy response 1:46e47 pollutant frequency distribution 1:46 pollutant types 1:43e46 exposure determinants 2:279e280 human exposure to 1:200e201 implication for research and public health policy 1:27e28 intercontinental transport of 4:128 on lung cancer ambient 1:29e32 health impact assessment 1:36e38 indoor 1:32e38 methodological issues 1:23e27 performance measures 1:22 pollutant categories 2:278e279 as risk factor for childhood cancer risk factors 1:27 short-and long-term effects of 1:22e23 in Sierra Leone 5:671e672 from solid fuels 1:49e60 from waste incineration 2:557 Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA) 5:333 air pollution index (API) 5:278 air pollution tolerance index (APTI) 1:58 air quality 3:692 in Kuwait 3:730e731 legislation 1:61, 1:63e66 in China 1:66 in European Union 1:65e66 international 1:64e65 in United States 1:66 in Malaysia 4:204 modeling 5:714e716 standards 5:34, 5:34t CO 1:68 NO 2 1:67 ozone 1:67 PM 1:66 SO 2 1:67 toxic metals 1:68e69 air quality guidelines (AQGs) 1:62 and health effects 1:62e63 Air Quality Standard (Guideline) of sulfur oxides in ambient air 5:828e829, 5:828t air toxics 1:721e722, 4:440e441 air transportation and human health 1:71 air travel 1:78e79 aircraft cabin air quality 1:79 airlines 1:79 airport runoff 1:79e80 airport-related noise 1:76e78 ambient air pollution 1:73e74 experimental studies around airports 1:74e75 mitigation of air pollution 1:75 physical agents 1:79 predicting impact on public health 1:75e76 public heath impact of large airports 1:72 airborne particulate matter 3:655e657 aircraft accidents 5:268 noise 1:548e549, 1:706 airplane noises 5:677 airport malaria 3:295e297 airport-related noise 1:76e78 adverse impacts of noise on health and wellbeing 1:76e78 mandate of Noise Control Act 1:76 airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) 5:531e532 Al-Sag/Al-Disi aquifer 5:816 ALARA principle 2:13e14 Alcaligenes 4:374 alcohol 2: 675, 2:689, 4:710, 4:832, 4:835 consumption 2:355 as major road traffic crash risk 5:576 hand gel 3:458 alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 2:675, 5:158 alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) 1:538 Alexandrium 4:742e743 algal toxins 4:728 Algeria, parasites in 6:420 alien species 3:611 alimentary habit modification 2:78e79 alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA) 4:505 alimentary tract, uranium effect on 6:255 aliphatic aldehydes 3:638 alkylbenzene 1:253 allergens 1:308, 2:151e152, 2:445, 5:310e311, 6:444 allergic asthma 5:664 allergic hypersensitivity. See contact hypersensitivity (CHS) allergic inflammatory reaction 5:312e314 allergic pollen types 5:306e309 grass pollens 5:307e308 tree pollens 5:308 weed pollens 5:308e309 allergic reactions 5:480 allergic respiratory disease (AR disease) 5:300e303
socio-economic burden of 5:306 allergic rhenitis 6:443e444 allergenic process 6:444 effects of climate change and air pollution 6:446e447 epidemiological portrait of 6:444e445 etiology 6:445e446 public health impacts under future climate change scenarios 6:447e449 risk factors for pollen 6:445e446 allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. See allergic respiratory disease (AR disease) allergic sensitization 2:442, 2:446 development 2:439e440 priming of 5:314 sulfonamides, and tetracyclines (ACSSuT) 2:619 Amu Darya 1:87e88 amyloid plaque formation, Al 3+ involvement in 1:322 amyloid-beta peptide (Ab) 3:191e192 amyloidosis 1:319e320 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 3:191, 3:196, 4 :614e615 Anabaena 4:742e743 anaerobic bacteria 4:326 anaerobic digestion 1:401, 4:377 analytic-deliberative processes 2:14e15 analytical dosimetry 5:537 analytical methods 5:535 anamnesis 1:673
See also prophylaxis and clinical examination 6:143e144 radiology 6:143 routine blood test 6:143 tuberculosis-specific laboratory investigations 6:144 angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) 5:601e602 aniline 5:800
aniline-induced iron overload in spleen 5:801 metabolites 5:802e803 oxidative stress-responsive signaling pathways 5:802 splenotoxic response and structurally related compounds 5:800 animals 1:213, 3:449e450 allergens 4:345 animal/dietary fat 4:708e709 cadmium effects on wild 1:472 feces management 5:595 high doses of Mo in animal exposures 4:450e451 husbandry 2:622 manure 1:120e121, 3:655 models 1:528 in toxicology 6:97 nanotechnology in production 2:680 nonvenomous 3:449e450 studies 1:686e687 venomous 3:450 waste as urban dust pollution components 1:95e102 welfare 1:143 Anniston Community Health Survey 5:105 annoyance 2:271, 4:456, 4:661 assessment through hedonic pricing 4:460 by stated levels of disturbance 4:457e458 through stated willingness-to-pay 4:459e460 coping with 4:662 costs of perceived annoyance and losses in quality of life 4:456e462 health problem 4:663 from noise pollution 4:661 validity and reliability of annoyance questions 4:664e666 anogenital distance (AGD) 2:759e760 Anopheles arabiensis 4:184 Anopheles freeborni 5:283 Anopheles gambiae 4:173e175, 4:175f Anopheles mosquitoes 4:173e174, 4:176e178 Anopheles quadrimaculatus 5:282 anorexia nervosa 6:496e497 Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) 1:103 Antarctica ecosystems and contamination in 1:103e105 health of antarctic organism 1:109 levels and patterns of contaminants 1:109e114 trophic web 1:103e105 anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity 1:538e539 anthrax 1:353e354 anthropogenic emission 4:319 anthropogenically modified geologic transmission environments 3:669e670 anthropometric status of shigellosis 5:630 anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) 2:458 Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH) 4:784 anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, bismuth compounds as 1:417e418 anti-incinerator alliance (AIA) 2:557 antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) 1:3e4, 1:125e126, 1:128 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) 1:3e4, 1:128 antibiotics 1:118 antibiotics in soil 1:120e123 antibiotics in water bodies 1:123e125 in aquatic ecosystems 2:622e623 classification based on human health 1:119te120t in drinking water sources and potential human health risks 1:128e130 ecological impacts of 1:125e128 environmental fate of 1:118e120 pressure in environment 2:620e623 resistance 1:99 in soil 2:622 anticancer agents, bismuth compounds as 1:419e420 anticholinergics 1:639 antiepileptic drugs (AED) 4:213 antifoaming agents 1:809 antihistamines, cardiotoxicity of 1:539 antihypertensive medication coding (ATC coding) 1:549 antimalarial medicines 4:189 antimicrobial agents, bismuth compounds as 1:418 antimicrobial resistance 2:615e616, 4:391e392
in bacteria 2:616e620 in environmental fecal bacteria 1:98e99 antioxidant response element (ARE) 1:487 antioxidants 2:443e444, 4:833 pro-oxidant reactions 4:835e836 protective role in defense against ROSmediated environmental pollutants 4:833e835 antiretroviral therapy (ART) 4:89e90 a-1-antitrypsin deficiency 1:636 Antonovsky's salutogenic model 5:704e705 anxiety 5:733e734 Aphanizomenon 4:742e743 Aplysiatoxins 5:478 Apodemus spp. (mice) 3:70 apolipoprotein E (apoE) 3:191e192, 3:220 apoptosis 3:39e40, 3:235e236, 3:238, 4:605 appurtenances 2:162 aquaculture 1:143 biochemical indicators of stress 1:144 future considerations 1:145e146 gene expression and transcriptomics of stress 1:144e145 aquamarine 1:263 aquatic antibiotics in ecosystems 2:622e623 biodiversity 1:348e349 lithium in aquatic environment 4:122e123 organisms 1:270 species 4:545e548 systems 6:164e165 aquifer country units (ACUs) 5:618 aquifers 4:370e371 potential for recharging of 6:235e236 Arabian Gulf heavy metals distribution in 4:751e752 water quality in 4:750e751 Aral Sea 1:87e88 development 1:88t economic situation of riparian states 1:89e90 effects on climate 1:90e91 on fishery 1:90 on health of local population 1:91e92 on income and social structures of inhabitants 1:90 environmental effects of falling level 1:89 political aspects 1:92e93 water level 1:88 arboviral encephalitis 6:454e455 arboviral meningitis 6:454e455 arboviral myelitis 6:454e455 Arcobacteria 1:397 area sampling 1:194 armed conflicts 5:292 aromatic hydrocarbons 5:493 arsenic (As) 1: 153, 1:155te156t, 1:692, 2:582, 2:748, 4:333, 4:424e430, 4:425te429t, 4:471, 4:610, 6:77e78, 6:91e92 arsenic-induced human health effects 1:158 arsenic-related health hazards genetic and environmental cofactors of 6:5 in Northeastern Taiwan 6:4e5 in Southwestern Taiwan 6:2e4 and cancer effects 1:162e166 cardiovascular effect 1:161 contents in parboiled and nonparboiled cooked rice 2:250 cooking effect on 2:252e253 dermal effects 1:158 in drinking water 3:93e94 exposure from seafood consumption 1:147e150, 1:148te149t crustaceans 1:150 echinoderms 1:149e150 fish 1:150 freshwater organisms 1:150 human exposure to 1:150e151 macroalgae/seaweed 1:148e149 marine mammals 1:150 molluscs 1:150 seafood safety 1:151 exposure reconstruction 2:799 in food chain 1:156e158 and genotoxic effects 1:166e167 health hazards in well water 6:1 maximal contamination level and mitigation of 6:6 neurological effect 1:162 pollution of groundwater arsenic and climate change 1:178 arsenic pollution and agriculture 1:176e178 discovery and measurement 1:169e171 distribution 1:171 exposure pathways and exposed population 1:174 geochemistry and causes of arsenic pollution 1:173e174 geology and hydrogeology of affected aquifers 1:171e173 health effects 1:174e175 policies and politics 1:178e179 water supply mitigation 1:175e176 pregnancy outcome 1:160e161 and prevalence of diabetes 1:158e160 public health impacts of arsenic exposure 2:253e254 carcinogenic effects 2:254 noncarcinogenic effects 2:254 other effects 2:254 respiratory effect 1:161e162 in rice 2:248e249 effect of cooking on 2:249e250 in vegetables 2:250e252, 2:251t arsenicosis 2:254, 3:385 arsenobetaine 1:150 artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) 4:184, 5:56 arthropod-borne infectious diseases 3:297 artificial earth dyke 6:250 artificial neural network (ANN) 2:333, 4:693 artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM) 3:361e362, 3:361f, 4:314 aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) 2:52e53, 2:125, 2:137, 5:101 pathway 6:94e95, 6:94f as low as reasonably achievable principle (ALARA principle) 1:506 asbestiform 3:618e619, 6:391 asbestos 2:521, 2:556e557, 2:699, 2:766e768, 3:618e619, 4:726, 6:90e91
connection between systemic autoimmune disease, interstitial lung disease and 1:187e189 exposure 5:134
animal studies of 1:187 immunological studies humans 1:185e187 and pulmonary health effects 1:183e184 industry 2:768 ascariasis 2:506 air pollution 2:509 animals 2:509e510 environmental health and 2:507 GIS 2:510 insects 2:510 personal and environmental health education 2:511 RS 2:510 sewage 2:508e509 soil 2:509 sustainable development 2:511 water 2:507e508 Ascaris lumbricoides 2:507, 4:183e184 life cycle 2:507 ascorbic acid, pro-oxidant effects of 4:836 ash 6:390e391 Asia, e-waste scrap in 2:317 aspartame and suspected carcinogens 4:726 asphyxiants 1:692e693 CO 1:692e693 HCN 1:693 aspirin 2:432, 4:578 assaults 5:768 assayable bioaerosols 4:348e349 assisted or induced phytoextraction 3:376 asthma 1:207, 1:589e590, 2:61e62, 2:280, 2:562, 2:609, 3:219e220, 5:358e359 development 2:437e438 as developmental disease 2:438 disparities need to considering social and physical environment 2:153e155 physical environmental determinants 2:151e152 social environmental determinants 2:152e153 environmental agents causing 1:210e211 environmental exposures 2:445e448 environmental sensitizers 1:208e209 exacerbation 2:445e446 factors modifying induction 2:442e445 immunologic assessments to risk factors 1:208 impact of intrauterine exposures 2:440e441 lung function and 1:777e778 mechanisms underlying allergic sensitization development 2:439e440 normal development of immune system 2:438e439 of respiratory system 2:438 postnatal exposures impact on respiratory system development and risk 2:441e442 impact to environmental pollutants on 2:442 prevalence 2:151 risk factors in workplaces 1:211e215 triggers 3:525e527, 3:527t astrogliosis 4:622e624 astroviruses 1:399, 2:664 asylum seeker 2:17 case studies and site-specific risk assessment 6:400e402 chemicals 6:397e399 as environmental contaminants of emerging concern 6:402e403 environmental toxicity 6:400 exposure 6:399 history 6:397 physical, chemical, and fate properties 6:399e400 scientific and decision making research needs 6:403e404 chemical waste 4:208e209 chemically-induced respiratory toxicities cytochrome P-450 enzymes in respiratory tract 1:578e579 glutathione and glutathione S-transferases 1:579e580 metabolic activation of 1,1-dichloroethylene and Clara cell necrosis 1:583e584 of vinyl carbamate 1:584e585 oxidative stress 1:585e587 susceptibility of lung cells to 1:580e583 chemicals weapons convention (CWC) 6:397 chemobiokinetics of fluoride 3:52e53 chemoprophylaxis 6:148 chemotherapy 4:724 chernobyl, children of 1:780 Chernobyl accident 5:268, 5:448, 5:552, 5:552t, 5:555 childhood malignancies risk with 5:555t environmental radioactive contamination 5:449e452 exposure levels of emergency and recovery operation workers 5:452e453 of European Public 5:456e457 of public residing in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine 5:453e456 exposures, doses, and natural background 5:448 human exposure pathways related to 5:448e449 populations and areas of concern 5:448 Chernobyl deaths myth 5:410e411 Chernobyl nuclear plant accident (1986) 4:695, 4:697 chest radiograph 6:129e130 Chicago O'Hare International Airport 1:74 chikungunya virus (CHIKV) 1:243 child(ren) birth 2:691e692 of chernobyl 1:780 child-specific issues in environmental health issues valuation 2:734e735 in developing countries 1:595e597 pathways of exposure 1:596 poverty and malnutrition 1:596 social, cultural, demographic, and lifestyle factors 1:597 unique vulnerability 1:595 development cancer 1:779e780 congenital malformations 1:773 critical windows of susceptibility and associated outcomes 1:770 endocrine system development and function 1:776e777 exposure science 1:770 growth and development/obesity 1:774 human development 1:768e769 immune system function 1:778e779 infant mortality 1:773e774 LBW/SGA 1:773 to life course 1:360e361 life stages 1:768, 1:768t child(ren) (continued) lung function and asthma 1:777e778 nervous system development 1:774e775 premature birth 1:772 reproductive system structure and function 1:775e776 spontaneous abortion and stillbirth 1:770e772 environmental health 1:589e592 in developing countries 1:595e597 environmental risk factors in developing areas 1:597e600 protection 1:600e601 exposure 1:604 critical windows 1:607 dose 1:604 factors 1:604e606 measurements 1:607 feces management 5:594e595 health risk assessment 1:610 doseeresponse assessment 1:612e614 exposure assessment 1:614 hazard characterization 1:611e612 problem formulation 1:610e611 risk characterization 1:614 health valuation 2:737e742 intrahousehold allocation models 2:737 revealed preference studies 2:741e742 stated preference studies 2:740e741 human health risk assessment absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion 5:152e159 PK factors 5:152 immunological effects in 3:606e607 labor in Lebanon 5:689 mercury toxicity in child health 4:331e332 of migrant workers 2:524, 2:527f air quality 2:525e526 environmental determinants of health 2:524e527, 2:525t key diseases 2:528e530 other factors 2:526e527 past experience, lessons and recommendations 2:531e532 public opinions and satisfaction 2:530e531 quality of care for population 2:528 social and political environment 2:527e528 water quality 2:524e525 noise and cognition in 4:655, 4:659 chronic noise exposure 4:658 classroom acoustics and performance 4:657e658 different memory processes 4:655 epidemiological and field studies of chronic noise 4:656e657 experimental studies of acute noise 4:657 link between acute and chronic noise effects 4:657 measuring noise exposure 4:655e656 noise effects on memory 4:658 pesticide effect on 5:129e130 phthalates exposure from child-care products 5:181 asphyxiants 1:692e693 heavy metals 1:690e692 organic solvents 1:686e690 safety policy implications 1:693 substances 1:689e690 combined injuries 1:671e672, 1:675e676 combined noise paradox 1:696 combined sound sources from industry and transportation 1:702 combined transportation noise exposure aircraft, railway, road traffic noise 1:700e701 aircraft, with road or rail traffic 1:700 annoyance from combined sound sources in field settings 1:697 auditory perception of combined sound in experimental settings 1:697 combined exposure to noise and air pollution 1:706e709 to noise and vibration 1:704e706 combined sound sources from industry and transportation 1:702 interactions with neighborhood 1:697e698 noise and total exposure in different contexts 1:709e711 railway/tramway and road traffic 1:698e699 transportation noise combined with special acoustic features 1:701e702 HAPs 1:721e722 health outcomes of public concern 1:725e726 impacting indoor air and environmental quality 1:723e724 indoor air pollution impacting outdoor air quality 1:724 microenvironments of interest 1:722e723 natural and built environment factors 1:723 sources of pollution 1:717e719 perspectives 2:753e754 rebuilding 4:575 severance 6:302e304 surveys 5:731e732 Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) 4:567e570 community environmental and health needs 5:372e374, 5:376t
identification and prioritization approaches and methods 5:377f improving assessment and prioritization 5:376e380 participants, stakeholders, determinants, and influencing factors 5:374f practical issues and considerations 5:380 prioritization approaches and methods 5:374e376 SWOT analysis 5:375t community water supply systems (CWS systems) 2:160 waterborne disease outbreaks 2:164f community-based participatory method (CBP method) 5:374 community-based participatory research (CBPR) 4:716e717, 4:719e721, 5:374 community-led total sanitation (CLTS) 5:594 community-level psychosocial stressors 5:355 of upper respiratory airways 2:3 and chronic pulmonary manifestations 2:6 clinical criteria and natural course of disease 2:1e2, 2:2f and dysregulation of autonomous nervous system 2:7 and ear problems 2:3 and EMS 2:6e7 and eye problems 2:3 leads to metabolic and circulatory disturbances 2:3 and MCS 2:6 and ME/CFS 2:7 and skin problems 2:3 and vaccination 2:7 Danbury shakes 5:342e343 Danish guideline 2:275 data analysis, statistical tools for 2:835e836 data quality objectives (DQO) 5:513 database of national residential radon levels 5:513 daycare centers, particles in 5:42 de minimis risk 5:546e547 "deadly radiation" myth 5:409 Dean's Index 3:43e44, 3:44t debris flows 3:554 deca-BDE 5:351 decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) 4:50 decennial survey 6:434 decision making principles 5:543e545 risk-based decision-making 5:545 ten decision-making principles 5:543e544 use of precaution 5:544e545 under uncertainty appropriate handling of uncertainty in risk assessments 2:12 optimal integration of analytic and deliberative processes 2:14e15 public concerns as criteria for riskebenefit evaluation 2:10e11 risk-based vs. precaution-based approaches 2:13e14 riskebenefit balancing approaches 2:12e13 deconjugation 5:146 4:544 dental amalgam fillings chronic disease incidence and mortality 2:27e28 effects in children 2:32e33 on immunologic function 2:30e31 on kidney function 2:31 mercury uptake from 2:27 neurologic disease 2:28e30 reproductive effects 2:32 studies of self-reported symptoms 2:31e32 dental appliances 3:388 dental caries 4:47e48 caries and 4:50 evidence of relationship between lead and 4:50e51 fluoride in prevention 3:42 lead mechanisms as risk factor 4:52 linkage between tooth decay and childhood lead exposure 4:50 Mo and 4:454 tooth susceptibility 4:52e53 tooth/blood lead levels 4:51t dental fluorosis 3:43e44, 3:51, 3:54 dental use of mercury 3:363e364 dental wastes 3:459e460 estimation methods to metals in 4:353e356 guidelines for drinking-water MCs 4:730 lessons 6:462e463 liver damages and fluoride in 3:35e37 nitrate and human health adverse pregnancy outcomes 2:175e180 cancer 2:180e184 diabetes, thyroid effects, age-related macular degeneration, and cardiovascular health 2:184e185 human exposure to ingested nitrate 2:173e174 methemoglobinemia 2:174e175 penalties 6:463 radon in 2:784 regulations based on good practices 6:462 based on requirements to protecting health 6:464 designed to allow for adaptation, reflecting changes 6:467 designed to direct information collection and flow and consequential action 6:466e467 facilitating assessment, prioritization, and management of risks 6:464e465 and human health 6:458e462 realistic and achievable within national, state, and local contexts 6:465 regulates drinking water from catchment to consumer 6:465 renal damages and fluoride in 3:37 rewards 6:463 roles and responsibilities of stakeholders 6:466 scope of regulation needed to protecting public health 6:461e462 transfer 6:180 treatment 2:157, 4:370e372 cybersecurity 2:168e169 development of legislation and regulations 2:158e159, 2:159f distribution system design and operation 2:161e163 distribution system water quality 2:163e165 effectiveness of SDWA regulations 2:160 government regulation of drinking water quality 4:370e371 intentional contamination 2:167e168 microorganisms typically found in drinking water 4:374e376 recommendations from NRC Report 2:169 rules and regulations dealing with distribution systems 2:160t sources of microorganisms contaminating drinking water 4:372e374 unintentional contamination 2:165e167 vulnerability of water systems to contamination 2:165 water system diversity in US 2:160e161 waterborne disease outbreaks 2:161f, 2:164f drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) 5:559 CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity and acute genotoxicity assays 5:563 comparison of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity indices of C-DBPs and N-DBPs 5:564 cytotoxicity and genotoxicity indices 5:563 halogen species impact on DBP toxicity indices 5:565 mammalian cell bioassays 5:562 relationship between DBP cytotoxicity and genotoxicity 5:563 systematic analysis with mammalian cell assays 5:562 agricultural production, pesticides and food security 2:555e556 air pollution from waste incineration 2:557 analysis issues 2:572e574 asbestos 2:556e557 asthma and air pollution 2:562 brownfields 2:563 for developing countries 2:554e555 dimensions 1:658e659 e-waste 2:558 evidence for environmental inequality 2:570e571 health impacts 2:562e565 human right to safe environment 2:559 lead poisoning 2:562e563 manifestation 2:553e554 merits of environmental equity assessment approaches 2:573t pesticides 2:564 possibilities for intervention 2:566e567 procedural justice 2:576e577 regulatory roadblocks to 2:565e566 relationship of deprivation to mean annual air quality 2:571f remedy and response 2:575e576 superfund sites 2:563 uranium mining 2:564 water contamination 2:564e565 (1717) to building stock 5:387 in buildings other than offices 5:386e387 for employers 5:383 for individuals 5:382e383 for society and insurance companies 5:383 estimates of health and productivity costs 5:385e386 health and productivity benefits 5:383e385 sources of costs related to indoor environments 5:382 high molecular weight sensitizers 1:212e214 high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 2:683 high production volume (HPV) 3:708e709 high-efficiency particulate absolute filtering (HEPA filtering) 1:313 high-frequency scattering 4:257 high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) 3:62 high-resolution gas chromatographyehighresolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) 2:136 high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) 2:639 high-tech/electronic waste ecologies 3:267 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 1:223, 1:227e228 H5N1 virus 1:227 outbreaks 1:225 hip metal implant 3:388 Hippocratic Sleeve 4:370 histone modifications 2:69e70, 2:682 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) 3:169, 3:353e354 hollow fiber-based LPME (HF-LPME) 1:7 homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) 5:105e106 homologous recombination (HR) 3:236 hookworms 4:183e184 horizontal dust flux (HDF) 2:196e197, 2:197f hormesis 3:239, 3:541 conference 3:492e493 dose response in low-dose zone 3:541e542, 3:542f implications for risk assessment 3:543e544 limitations 3:544 resurgence 3:541 selection 3:544 hormetic dose response concept 3:493 hormonally active agents (HAAs) 2:757 hormone replacement therapy (HRT) 2:746, 3:558 hormones 6:55 measures 2:762 metabolism 5:328 hospital waste 3:662, 3:662f, 5:673 hospitality venues, particles in 5:44 hosteparasite coevolution theory 1:783e784 hot foods and drinks 4:709 house demolition. See forced eviction household air pollution (HAP) 3:494 impact of cleaner fuels 3:502 effectiveness of HAP interventions 3:499e503 exposureeresponse associations 3:503 HAPeconcentrations and exposures 5:754e756 impacts of clean energy interventions 3:502e503 impact of interventions on household pollution and personal exposures 3:499e502 reductions in 3:495e497 household dust 1:301 application of PBET 1:304 bioaccessibility of metals 1:303e304 concentrations of trace metals 1:303t implications for dose calculations and risk assessment 1:305 metal concentrations 1:302e303 metal mobilization and absorption 1:304e305 nature and sources 1:301e302 particulate constituents 1:302t household energy practices 5:760e761 solutions 3:494 benefits 3:495 economic evaluation 3:504e508 enabling environments 3:499 interventions 3:498e499 in LMICs 3:498e499 household environmental health in Kenya 4:188 household expenditure 5:769 household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) 3:510e515 boiling 3:511e512 chlorination 3:512e513 impact of climate change 3:517 combination flocculation and disinfection 3:514 effectiveness to prevent diarrhea 3:515 filtration 3:513e514 optimizing potential of 3:515e517 safe storage 3:514 solar disinfection 3:513 housing 1:465, 6:269e271 promoting urban health through interventions 6:269e270 Housing and Urban Development (HUD) 2:152e153 housing-related health hazards 3:522 comparison of three bundled housing intervention protocols 3:534e537 healthy housing 3:523 housing affordability, homelessness, and crowding 3:523e524 housing hazard assessment 3:525e530 protocols 3:524e525, 3:530e533 housing interventions on health 3:534 housing market and environmental health hazards 3:524 human-induced depletion of stratospheric ozone 2:207e211 human-induced erosion 5:831 human-related hazards 1:248e249 human(s) 1:784 adenoviruses 1:398e399 audible range 2:266e267 biomonitoring 3:382, 5:182e184 breast 3:561e562, 3:562f chromium and human nutrition 1:626e628 clinical studies 5:529e531 development 1:359, 1:768e769 socially partitioned world on 1:360 disease 2:69e70 geneeenvironment contribution to 3:217 genomics in 3:216e217 effluents 2:621 epidemiological surveillance 5:552 eye 6:195f factors in road traffic injuries 5:575e577
distraction 5:577 driver education and training 5:577 medication use and medical impairment 5:576e577 sleepiness 5:576 speed and alcohol consumption 5:576 fluoride toxicity 3:53e54 functional systems 1:767 gender differences in 3:160 geography of Bahama Archipelago 1:234 hepatitis 4:375e376 immune system 4:266 microecosystems 1:349e350 milk 2:827e828 intake 1:605te606t phthalates and metabolites 5:165e166 modes of spread to 2:625 molybdenum metabolism in 4:450 phthalate metabolites in human urine 5:165 populations as part of disease ecosystem 4:17 rights 1:653, 1:659, 5:298 reassessing to health 1:656e657 seroprevalence 3:400e401 studies 1:687e689 exposures 1:687 hearing outcomes 1:687e689 studies on human volunteers 5:524 subjective effects 5:463e464 exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations 5:464 exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phones 5:463e464 timeelocationeactivity patterns 1:717 transmission of hantaviruses 3:401 waste as components of urban dust pollution 1:95e102 humaneanimal interface and zoonoses 3:71 humidity 3:447 hunter-gatherers early Holocene and transition to agriculture 2:600e601 environmental impacts of agriculture in Ancient Times 2:601e602 environmentally attributable diseases 2:599e600 with agriculture in early Holocene 2:602e604 of Neolithic time 2:598e599 Huntington's disease ( immune function after acute radiation injury 3:599e601 in population exposed to internal irradiation 3:606e607 of pollen allergen responses 5:312e315 immunomodulators 5:600 immunophenotyping 2:64 immunosuppression 1:499e501 immunosuppressive drugs 6:125 immunotoxicity 5:152 immuntoxicology 4:266 impact analysis principles 2:232 valuation by effect type 2:234e238 impact pathway analysis (IPA) 4:471 impact-pathway approach 6:315e316 See also dermal exposure blood serum, urine, and fecal biomarkers and tracers 2:829 dietary and nondietary 2:823e826, 2:826t duplicate diets 2:827 estimates of dietary ingestion 2:828e829 FDA total diet 2:829 human milk 2:827e828 indirect estimates of dietary ingestion 2:829 ingestion models 2:829e830 intervention and prevention of dietary exposure 2:831 measures 2:825e826 susceptible populations for exposure through ingestion route 2:830e831 inhalation 3:52, 4:552, 5:164, 5:211, 5:520e521
of particulates in air 6:91f inhalation exposure 2:851, 6:89e91 activity patterns 2:853e855 to biologics 2:857e858 breathing rate and activity 2:855 modeling 2:852 respiratory tract 2:853 3:234e235, 3:237f, 4:695e696, 4:834, 5:112, 5:534, 5:555, 6:56 See also nonionizing radiation childhood malignancy risk from exposure to 5:554e555 exposure comparisons with antique items 5:424e427 conscious and subconscious decisions for safety 5:413e421 fears 5:408, 5:421 gift of fear 5:421e422 images power behind fears of consequences 5:412e413 mythology affects people believe about radiation 5:408e409 processes conflict for radiation risk decisions 5:421e422 programmed fears and flaws 5:414e415 radiation myths 5:409e412 individual sensitivity to 3:601 molecular cellular studies 3:237e238 molecular studies 3:235e237 air, levels in 5:2e3 automobile exhaust catalysts 5:5 biological monitoring 5:6e7 chemical uses 5:5 dental materials and other medical materials 5:5 electronics and electrical technologies 5:5 environmental levels 5:1e2 monitoring 5:6 fine jewelry and optical instruments 5:5 food, levels in 5:4 health effects 5:7e8 human exposure 5:6 industrial uses 5:4e5 road dust, levels in 5:3e4 soil, levels in 5:3 water levels in 5:4 treatment 5:6 Palomares (aircraft accidents) 5:268 Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) 1:560e561 parabens 2:397 paradigm shift in ventilation study 6:354 paraffin 5:760e761 parameter optimization 5:217e218 paraoxonase 1 (PON1) 4:789e790, 5:348 Paraquat 1:585e586 parasite zoonoses 5:11e13
See also zoonosis adaptation 5:23 case studies for parasite zoonoses and environmental change 5:24e25 in domestic animals 5:24 emerging and resurging disease 5:14 environmental change, parasite zoonoses, and emerging disease 5:17e23 environmental health 5:15 extreme climatic events 5:22 global perspective 5:26 human behavior 5:23 life support systems 5:22e23 in marine systems 5:25 parasites, hosts, and life cycles 5:9e11 in people 5:24 in wildlife 5:24e25 parasite(s) 4:80 new assemblages 5:20 new incidence or severity of parasitic disease 5:21e22 in new locations 5:17e20 parasitic diseases 1:559 parasitic infections 2:506 as part of disease ecosystem 4:17 parasitology 1:564 parathion (PRT) 5:27, 5:27f carcinogenicity in humans 5:28e29 mechanisms 5:29 studies in animals 5:28 chemistry, production, use, and exposure 5:27 safety 5:29 toxicity 5:27e28 parathion-ethyl. See parathion (PRT) parboiled cooked rice, arsenic contents in 2:250 Pardosa milvina (Wolf spider) 3:210e211 Pareto principle 4:767 Parkinson's disease (PD) 2:29, 2:284, 3:191, 4:614e615 parks 6:286e288 partial body irradiation (PBI) 1:671 partial irradiation 1:671 participatory discourse 2:15 participatory rural appraisal method (PRA method) 5:374 particle image velocimetry (PIV) 6:352 particle number concentration (PNC) 5:36 particle(s) in daycare centers 5:42 formation 5:37e38 in hospitality venues 5:44 in offices 5:42e43 particle-induced neurotoxicity 2:284e286 in residences 5:39e41 in schools 5:41e42 relationship between data and disease 2:753 role of family 2:751 sharing research-generated information with parents 2:752e753 "Pedigree Scheme" 2:14e15 pedosphere, human health and the state of 3:546e553 penalties 6:463 penetration 5:36e37 penicillin G 2:581 Penicillium notatum 2:615 penta-BDE 5:351 penta-deca-fluoro-octanoic acid (C 8 HF 15 O 2 ). See perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) pentachlorophenol (PCP) 2:641 pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) 2:653e654 Perca fluviatilis 1:270 perception of low frequency noise 2:266e267 perceptual mechanisms for indoor air quality 5:78e82 influence of air temperature and humidity 5:80e81 methods 5:79e80 ozone-reactive compounds and olfaction 5:81 perception of indoor air quality 5:80 physiological mechanisms 5:82e83 sensory irritations 5:81 sick building syndrome symptoms 5:81e82 perchlorate 2:397 perfluorinated compounds (PFC) 2:653e654 perfluorinated substances commercial and industrial uses 5:87e88 occupational exposure limit 5:88e89 physicochemical properties 5:86 potential health hazards to decomposition products 5:89 perfluoro-octanesulfonamide (PFOSA associations between exposure and site-specific cancer 5:130t of pesticide exposure with common diabetes risk factors 5:105 of pesticide exposure with insulin resistance 5:105e106 challenges in and recommendations for effective 1:575 communicating concept of "long-term, " chronic health effects 1:573 of "toxicity" and acute effects 1:571e573 comprehension issues 1:573 context neutral 1:574e575 cumulative risk assessment 5:131 evidence from epidemiology 5:111e116 genotoxicity 5:130 by hazard 5:125t human exposure to 5:121e129 human studies 5:129e130 initiative to harmonizing chemical hazard classification and communication 1:573 interpreting and communicating data 1:570e571 labels as risk communication tool 1:570 limitations of pesticides epidemiology 5:115 mechanisms 5:108 mode of action 5:119e121 pesticide risk perceptions 1:573 premarket testing 5:110e111 reproductive toxicity 5:130e131 residues in household and vehicle dust 6:20e21 risk communication 1:569 perceptions 1:573 strategies 1:569e570 for preventing and controlling 5:131 type 2 diabetes characteristics of studies on pesticide exposure and 5:106
longitudinal studies of pesticide exposure and 5:107 cross-sectional associations of pesticide exposure with 5:106 petroleum hydrocarbons 2:412 effects in biota 4:754e756 pets 5:133 bioterrorism and chemical terrorism 5:140 chemical exposures in 5:138 and chronic diseases linked to air pollution 5:137 and environmental cancer 5:134e137 as sentinels of infectious diseases 5:138e140 phallotoxins 2:581 pharmaceuticals 1:1e2, 1:2t, 5:143 basic pharmacology 5:143e144 bismuth in 1:416e417 current status with respect to sampling, preparation and extraction methods 1:4e8 entry into environment 5:144e146 groups of particular environmental concern 5:147t implementation of "green analytical chemistry" 1:11 multiresidue methods 1:10e11 neuropsychiatric 5:148t occurrence and environmental effects 5:146e148 phthalates exposure from 5:182 protective measures 5:149 recent developments in chromatographic systems and techniques 1:8e10 residues 1:1e3 substances 5:147t surface water and public health 5:148e149 wastes 3:456e457 pharmacodynamics (PD) 5:151e152 factors in early life carcinogenesis 5:159e160 immune system 5:160 nervous system 5:160 respiratory tract 5:161 modeling 5:231e232 pharmacokinetics (PK) 1:380, 5:151, 5:153t, 5:201 chemicals getting into body 2:840e841 consequences of chemicals in body 2:841 direct comparison of biomarker to toxicity value 2:842 factors 5:152 forward dosimetry 2:842 hazard, doseeresponse, exposure, and risk 2:840 impact in risk assessment 5:224e225 of manganese 4:232 probabilistic reverse dosimetry 2:843e849 reverse dosimetry 2:842e843 tools for interpreting biomonitoring studies 2:841e849 phase II conjugation systems 5:157e158 phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) 5:800 Phlebotomine sandflies 5:581 Phlebotomus 5:581e582 N-(phosphono-methyl)-glycine. See glyphosate (GLY) phosphoric coatings 2:634e636 photo voice 4:279 photoaging 2:212, 6:191, 6:210e211 photobiology biochemical effects 6:189 cellular and biological effects 6:189e190 effects on living organisms 6:188 indoor tanning 6:191 photomedicine 6:190 physical and chemical processes 6:188 positive effects on organisms 6:192 skin reactions 6:190e191 photocatalytic disinfection (PCD) 1:313 photochemical smog 1:43e44, 3:408e409 photoconjunctivitis 6:219 photodermatoses abnormal cutaneous immune response to UV 6:213e214 defective DNA repair 6:214e215 by photosensitizing chemicals 6:214 photokeratitis 6:196e198, 6:201e202, 6:201f, 6:219 photomedicine 6:190 photoprotection 6:216 advocacies 6:193 external protection 6:192e193 systemic 6:193 UV management 6:193 photosensitization 6:189 photosensitizing compounds 6:191 phreatomagmatic eruptions 6:381 phthalates 2:397, 2:809e810, 5:163, 5:174, 5:350e351, 5:351t
biomonitoring 5:165e167 esters 5:174e175 exposure from breast milk and infant formula 5:179 from cosmetic products 5:181e182 from food 5:180 via house dust 5:177e179 via indoor air 5:177e178, 5:178t in medical interventions 5:182 from outdoor air 5:176 from pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements 5:182 from toys and child-care products 5:181 from workplaces 5:176 general aspects of human exposure 5:176 health effects in humans 5:167e170 human biomonitoring 5:182e184 intake estimated from diet studies 5:180e181 metabolites 2:653 overall exposure assessment 5:184e185 prevention strategies 5:170 routes of human exposure to 5:163e164 phylogeny 3:398e399 physical activity 2:713, 4:705e708 physical agents 1:715 physical contaminants 3:59 physical disorder 4:602 physical dosimetry 1:671