|TIAB (Title and Abstract)|
Endothelial glycocalyx as a critical signalling platform integrating the extracellular haemodynamic forces and chemical signalling.
The glycocalyx covers the human mammalian cells and plays important roles in stroke, inflammation and atherosclerosis. It has also been shown to be involved in endothelial mechanotransduction of shear stress. Shear stress induces the remodelling of the major component of the glycocalyx including glypican-1, a cell membrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan. Other factors, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), protect the glycocalyx against syndecan-1 ectodomain shedding and induce the synthesis of heparan sulphate. In this study, we reviewed the role of shear stress and S1P in glycocalyx remodelling and revealed that the glycocalyx is a critical signalling platform, integrating the extracellular haemodynamic forces and chemical signalling, such as S1P, for determining the fate of endothelial cells and vascular diseases. This review integrated our current understanding of the structure and function of the glycocalyx and provided new insight into the role of the glycocalyx that might be helpful for investigating the underlying biological mechanisms in certain human diseases, such as atherosclerosis.
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