|TIAB (Title and Abstract)|
|Education concerning carcinoma of prostate and its early detection.|
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer. Insufficient knowledge of PCa among men causes its low detection. Lack of essential actions in health education and widely understood prophylaxis, the need of the latter are maybe responsible for the increasing mortality rate. According to our assumption, educating men increase their awareness on the need of screening tests and results in increasing reporting to physical examinations. This in turn allows for an early detection of the disease.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A research was conducted between the years 2003-2009 on the knowledge of PCa among 260 men. They were divided into two groups. Group A - 63 patients treated for carcinoma of prostate and group B - 197 men reporting spontaneously to screening tests. In order to check the adopted hypothesis, we prepared an educational material and test of knowledge - test with a questionnaire. Knowledge was evaluated before (test I) and after the education process (test II). Until 2009, we were monitoring the number of patients from group B reporting to screening tests and their knowledge was once again checked (test III). Two subgroups C and D were created from group B - 117 healthy men and 80 with diagnosed diseases respectively (70 with benign prostatic hyperplasia, 7 with prostatitis, and 3 with carcinoma of prostate). Patients with prostatitis and PCa and 3 patients from group C not reporting to the tests were excluded from further monitoring. Maths statistics with the use of SPSS 12.0 PL program and Statistica 6.0 constituted the base for working out the results.
RESULTS: We observed a higher knowledge about carcinoma of prostate in group A than in group B (p <0.0001) and it increased after 5 years in group D (p <0.0001) in comparison to group C. Patients aged >40 from groups C and D were interested in health care (p<0.01) as much as patients aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69. In men >70 a lower level of motivation was observed. The interest was proportional to the level of education, and this was differentiating in an analogical way the motivation to extend knowledge about prostate cancer (p<0.001). The place of living was determining the level of motivation for broadening knowledge - in bigger towns in a greater extent (p <0.01). The frequency of reporting to screening tests during a period of 5 years was comparable in groups C and D, regardless of knowledge tests' results. Health risk awareness following the education process was motivating men to undergo screening tests (p <0.05). This confirms our own research hypothesis. Regardless of the age bracket, the obtained result of knowledge test II was higher than test I and the result of test III was lower than test II, respectively: p <0.01; p <0.08; p <0.01; p <0.001. The level of knowledge test III among all examined patients was higher in comparison to test I - p <0.01; p <0.001; p <0.001 respectively. White-collar workers obtained in test I a result higher than blue-collar workers, unemployed or retired people p <0.001 and p <0.01 respectively. Unemployed and retired people obtained more scores than blue-collar workers (p <0.05). Both in professional workers and retired people test III was higher than test I - p <0.001 and p <0.001 respectively. In 7 examined men prostate cancer was diagnosed; in group B in 3 in an advanced state, and during 5 years in group C - in 4 men at an early development stage.
CONCLUSIONS: In the examined men, we observed an almost complete lack of knowledge about carcinoma of prostate, hence they did not report to screening tests.The education process influenced the level of knowledge about carcinoma of prostate. The examined men >40, inhabitants of bigger towns with higher education, less with secondary education and still less with elementary education showed interest in improving their health knowledge.Due to increasing knowledge about carcinoma of prostate, patients were undertaking systematic tests - on average once a year. It confirmed the fact that education on prostate cancer influences its early detection.Education on carcinoma of prostate on a large scale may lead to decreasing morbidity and mortality rates.
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