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3. Various Early-Life Stressors, The Same Target: The Developing Beta-Cell Mass
As abundantly illustrated in animal models, many early-life stressors such as maternal hyperglycaemia, undernutrition, overnutrition, hypercholesterolemia, corticosteroid therapy, uteroplacental insufficiency, or hypoxia trigger a beta-cell mass adaptive response in the fetus (Figure 2,Table 1).

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